A New Testament Greek Grammar Review Tool    

Term Definition
Accusative Case  The name of the case that indicates the direct_object of a transitive_verb.  

Adjective  A word that modifies by describing or limiting (qualifying) a noun or pronoun. Typically adjectives will describe by telling what kind and limit by pointing out which one or by telling how many or how much. The definite_article is a special category of adjective that limits by specifying which particular noun or pronoun is referenced.  


The large sea is blue.

Every tree that does not produce good fruit will be cut down.

the glory of the holy angels.

Blessed are the pure in heart.

Adverb  A word that modifies by describing or limiting a verb, adjective, or another adverb. Adverbs may be categorized according to the questions they answer: when? (temporal), where? (location/place), why? (cause), or how? (manner/degree).  


He preached the gospel boldly.

A spirit seizes him and he suddenly screams.

…they can immediately open the door for him.

Agreement  Also known as concord, agreement is the formal correspondence between two parts of speech. In Greek the subject agrees with its verb in person and number. adjectives agree with the words they modify in gender, number, and case.  

Antecedent  Typically a noun, but any substantive, to which a pronoun refers. As the name suggests (“ante” means “before”), an antecedent usually comes before the pronoun, but not always. Some pronouns will anticipate (point forward to) their antecedents. The personal_pronoun, relative_pronoun, and demonstrative_pronouns will generally have antecedents.

In the following examples the antecedent is in bold type and the pronoun is in bold italics:  


Jesus walked out of Galilee and he then went to Bethsaida.

Jesus promised them the Holy Spirit who would come later.

Article  A word that specifies a noun or other substantive. Articles are classified either as definite_article (the) or as indefinite_article (a, an).  


Jesus rode on a donkey toward the Temple.

I am the way and the truth and the life.

…descending from heaven like a dove.

Aspect  A property of tense that indicates the kind of action. Aspect presents the action as the author chooses to portray it. Aspect denotes the author’s subjective viewpoint of the action, which may or may not correspond to the action as it actually occurred. Though the labels differ, action has typically been classified in three broad categories: continuous action (incomplete, progressive), undefined action (simple), perfective action (completed action with continuing effect or state).  


He is writing/ was writing (continuous).

He writes/ wrote (undefined).

He has written (perfective).

Auxiliary Verb  Another term for a helping_verb. A verb used to form a compound_tense.  


He has believed.

She is speaking.

Case  The distinctive form or position of a noun or pronoun that identifies its grammatical function. In Greek the case of a word is indicated more by its inflected form than its position, but at times its position will be a key factor in determining the case. Some grammars use case and function synonymously for the grammatical function of a word, and speak more narrowly of case endings. Others equate case and case_ending as denoting the form of the word, and distinguish that from grammatical function.  


lovgoV (nominative)

lovgon (accusative)

Case Ending  The suffix on nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and participles that indicates the case of the word. Some case endings are ambiguous and could indicate more than one case. In that situation the specific case and grammatical function of a word would depend on other contextual factors than just the case ending.  


aujtw/: (dative)

DekapovlewV (genitive)

Clause  A group of words forming a subject and predicate. A clause is typically classified as a main_clause or a subordinate_clause.  


Love your neighbor (main) because God has loved us (subordinate).

When the Lord saw her (subordinate), he had compassion on her (main).

Complex Sentence  A sentence containing a main_clause and at least one subordinate clause. The subordinate clause may or may not be connected to the main clause by a subordinating conjunction.

In the following examples the main clauses are in bold type and the subordinating_conjunctions underlined. The subordinate clause is in plain text:  


We can love each other because he first loved us.

Do not love sleep lest you come to poverty.

Do not withhold good when you are able to do it.

Compound Sentence  A sentence containing two or more main_clauses. Typically, but not always, the clauses will be connected by a coordinating_conjunction.

In the following examples the main clauses are in bold type and the conjunctions underlined:  


He saw Simon and he called out to him.

Commit your works to the Lord and your thoughts will be established.

Wealth makes many friends, but the poor is separated from his neighbor.

Compound Tense  A verb form that consists of more than one word, usually helping_verb(s) and main verb.  


His work was accomplished.

They came and were baptized

We all have received from his fulness.

Compound-Complex Sentence  A sentence containing more than one main_clause and at least one subordinate clause.

In the following examples the main clauses are in bold type and the conjunctions underlined. The subordinate clauses are in plain text:  


You spoke about the Lord and testified because you believed.

Train up a child in the way he should go: and he will not depart from it when he is old.

Concord  Also known as agreement, concord is the formal correspondence between two parts of speech. In Greek the subject agrees with its verb in person and number, and adjectives agree with the words they modify in gender, number, and case.  

Conjugation  The orderly arrangement of all the inflected forms of a verb in a particular tense to show the distinctions of person and number. Sometimes the term will refer to the arrangement of all the forms in the verb system, not just in one tense.  

Conjunction  A word that joins words, phrases, or clauses. Conjunctions may be further classified as coordinating_conjunction (connecting words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank) or subordinating_conjunction (connecting a subordinate clause to a main clause).  


He spoke and witnessed to the faith (coordinating).

Although he believed, he was timid (subordinating).

Coordinating Conjunction  A conjunction that connects words, phrases, or clauses of equal rank. These will typically join two or more nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositional_phrases, or independent_clauses.  


Peter and James were disciples of the Lord.

Shall we depart or stay?

Crasis  The fusion of two adjacent words into one by means of contraction or elison. Elements of each word are preserved in the final form and so a word formed through crasis may embrace two parts of speech within the one word. A breathing mark may be retained to mark the point of contraction.  


kai; ejgwv goes to kajgwv

Dative Case  The name of the case that indicates the indirect_object of a transitive_verb. In Greek the dative case comprises other functions as well, many of which translate smoothly with the helping words “to, for, in, by.”  

Declension  The orderly arrangement of all the inflected forms of a noun, pronoun, or adjective to show the distinctions of gender, number, and case.  

Definite Article  A word that designates or specifies a particular substantive. The definite article (the) is a special category of adjective that derives from the demonstrative_pronoun (this/that, these/those) and thus has demonstrative force in pointing out a particular person, place, or thing (the home, the books, the sheep). The definite article can also have generic force when used with singular substantives to indicate a whole class (the bishop, meaning all bishops).  


The disciple walked with Jesus.

The law and the prophets bear witness that this is the Son of God.

Demonstrative Pronoun  A pronoun that points out the particular person, place, or thing referred to, especially in regard to relative location. The demonstratives “this/these” refer to what is near, while “that/those” refer to what is more distant.

As a pronoun the demonstrative stands alone, but when functioning as an adjective, the demonstrative modifies a noun.  


That man reclined and ate this bread with the disciples (far and near demonstrative adjectives).

Do you love me more than these? (near demonstrative pronoun)

Dependent Clause  Another name for a subordinate clause. This clause cannot stand by itself but must be joined in some way to another clause.  


When he went into the temple of the Lord…

…where he had be raised…

Because he came to the city first, he spoke in the marketplace.

Direct Discourse  A quotation reproducing the exact words of the speaker. Typically direct discourse is enclosed in quotation marks. Greek does not have quotation marks, but can indicate direct quotation in several ways, such as, citation formulas, key words, grammatical structures, and other contextual clues.  


Paul said, “Follow me as I follow Christ.”

Jesus said to him, “See that you tell noone.”

Direct Object  The substantive that receives the action of a transitive_verb or is most directly affected by it. This is most commonly indicated by the accusative case, but can also occur with the dative or genitive case.  


He spoke the word.

He heard the man.

Deliver us from the evil one.

Gender  A variation in the form (typically the ending) of a word to denote its classification with respect to sex: masculine, feminine, or neuter. While gender is preserved in English only in the third person pronoun (he, she, it) and in a few gender-specific nouns (actor and actress, prince and princess), it is used extensively in Greek. The gender of certain nouns (man, woman, son, daughter) matches the natural gender of the noun, but for the most part this classification is arbitrary and shows no direct correspondence to natural gender.  


a[nqrwpoV (“man, human,” masc.)

hJsuciva (“rest, quiet,” fem.)

biblivon (“scroll, book,” neut.)

Genitive Case  The name of the case that indicates possession. The genitive relates one substantive to another. The first, also call the head noun, is typically followed by the genitive expressing possession. The possession may not mean literal ownership, but will often be translated with an apostrophe “’s” or by some expression with the helping word “of.”  

Genitive Chain  A string of substantives in the genitive_case following a head_noun. The genitives may not necessarily have the same grammatical function and must be analyzed individually.  

Gerund  A verbal noun that is distinguished in English by its “ing” ending. It looks like a present participle but differs in function. The gerund functions as a noun, so that the gerund denotes the action itself (“smoking is bad for your health”). The participle functions as an adjective and thus modifies the person or thing doing the action (“a smoking gun was found at the scene of the crime”). Greek does not have gerunds, but rather uses the infinitive as the verbal noun (“to smoke is bad for your health”).  

Head Noun  The noun that governs the genitive construction that follows and depends upon it.  

Helping Verb  A verb that is used with other verbs to form compound_tenses; may also be called an auxiliary_verb. These include all forms of the verb “be” (am, is, are, was, were, being), as well as “has, have, had” and “shall, will.”  


He has believed.

She is speaking.

Indefinite Article  A word that denotes any one, rather than a particular one, of a class of objects (a home, a book, a sheep). Greek does not have an indefinite article but uses an indefinite_pronoun as an adjective to accomplish the same purpose.  


They came to a soldier.

There was a certain nobleman…

Now a certain man was sick…

Indefinite Pronoun  A pronoun that lacks a specific referent. The pronoun may refer to any person, place, or thing (“someone/thing, anyone/thing, a certain one/thing”).

As a pronoun the indefinite stands alone, but when functioning as an adjective, it modifies a noun.  


Anyone who believes will be saved (indefinite pronoun).

Any person who believes will be saved (indefinite adjective).

Independent Clause  Another name for a main_clause. This clause is not grammatically subordinate to or dependent upon another clause.  


He was sitting in the tree.

The disciples loved the Lord because he loved them.

Indirect Discourse  A restatement of someone’s words preserving the general idea or thought without quoting the exact words. Greek has several grammatical structures and key words that indicate indirect discourse. The nuanced use of subjects and tense can also indicate indirect discourse.  


Paul said that we should follow him as he follows Christ.

Jesus said that he should tell noone.

Indirect Object  The substantive that indirectly receives the action of a transitive_verb or is personally affected by it. This is most commonly indicated by the dative case, but may also be expressed in a prepositional phrase or more rarely with the accusative case.  


Jesus spoke the parable to the crowd.

We were speaking to the women.

Infinitive  A verbal noun that is typically identified in English by a preceding “to” (“to love, to give”). In Greek the infinitive can function as a substantive, adverb, or independent main verb.  


To err is human.

The man wanted to give all he had to Jesus.

Infinitive Phrase  An infinitive with its complements and modifiers. As a verbal form, the infinitive can govern nouns as subjects, indirect_objects, or direct_objects, adverbs, prepositional_phrases, and other complements. In Greek the infinitive phrase tends to be translated idiomatically and often requires a subordinate_clause for precise translation.  


To love the Lord is a wonderful thing.

It is right for me to feel this way about you.

Intensive Pronoun  A pronoun that adds the suffix “–self” to a personal_pronoun in order to emphasize the antecedent (“myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves”). The intensive pronoun typically follows immediately the word it emphasizes, but in some situations may occur elsewhere in the sentence.  


He himself walked by the sea.

We ourselves groan within.

I myself serve the law of God.

Interjection  An exclamatory word that expresses sudden or strong emotion but has no grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence.

While some Greek words or expressions (“O!, behold!, aha!, woe!”) may resemble interjections and even be labeled as such in lexicons, the interjection is not considered a part of speech in Greek. These words or expressions will generally be classified as particles.  


“Alas!” “Look!” “O!”

O unbelieving and perverse generation…

Woe to the world…

Behold, he is in the wilderness.

Interrogative Pronoun  A pronoun that introduces a question. Other interrogative words may be used to ask a question, but the interrogative pronoun is distinct as representing a noun (“who?, whose?, whom?, which?, what?”). The question mark is included to distinguish these English forms from the identical forms in the relative pronoun (“who, whose, whom, which, what, that”). The distinction is not necessary in Greek as the forms of the interrogative and relative pronouns are completely different.  


Whom do you serve?

What shall we say?

Who shall ascend into heaven?

Intransitive Verb  A verb that does not take a direct_object. An intransitive verb either expresses no action at all or limits the action to the subject or an agent, and so no action is transferred to an object.  


Pontius Pilate was uncertain before the crowd.

Jesus came to the city.

Lexicon  A dictionary. For Greek language study the lexicon provides information about word forms, usage, and range of meanings depending upon contexts and structures in which a word occurs.  

Main Clause  A clause that forms a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. Also referred to as an independent_clause, a main clause is not grammatically subordinate to or dependent upon another clause.  


John spoke the word.

They entered into Simon’s house.

This rumor about him spread throughout all Judea.

Mood  A feature in the verbal system that indicates the nature of the verbal idea with respect to its actuality or potentiality. Greek has four moods: indicative (makes a statement or asks a question; the action is considered actual or real), imperative (expresses a command or prohibition; expects that the potential action will be actualized), subjunctive (expresses possible, probable, or contingent action that may or may not be actualized), and optative (expresses possible, but less probable, action; not likely to be actualized).  


Jesus is Lord (indicative).

Believe, Peter, that Jesus is Lord! (imperative)

If Jesus is Lord, I should give my life to him (subjunctive).

I wish that everyone knew Jesus as Lord (optative).

Morphology  The study of the structure of words and the system of the forms of a language. This is the primary emphasis in basic Greek where so much time is devoted to learning lexical and inflected forms as well as the implications of those forms for the function of the words.  

Nominative Case  The name of the case for the subject of a verb. The nominative may also appear in the predicate when accompanied by an equative verb.  

Noun  A word denoting a person, place, thing or quality. Proper nouns name specific persons (Jesus, Peter), places (Jerusalem, Bethany), or things (Pentecost, Passover). Proper nouns are not necessarily capitalized in Greek, as they are in English. Common nouns are categorized as concrete or abstract. Concrete nouns can be perceived by the senses (house, book, sheep). Abstract nouns name things and qualities that are not detectable by the senses (love, hope, justice). Nouns typically function as subjects and objects.  

Number  A property of nouns, pronouns, and verbs that indicates whether the reference is to one (singular) or more than one (plural). In Greek the distinction of number is also preserved in the inflection of adjectives and participles.  


He will run the race well (singular).

The disciples were faithful to their call (plural).

o[cloi polloi;hjkolouvqhsan (“great crowds followed,” plural)

Object of a Preposition  Typically a noun or pronoun, but any substantive governed by the preposition in a prepositional_phrase. The object of a preposition is related to another word or phrase by the preposition.  


They rested under the tree on the road to Damascus.

He was in the world and the world was made by him.

…you might have life through his name.

Oblique Case  Any case other than the nominative_case or vocative_case. In Greek the oblique cases are the genitive_case, dative_case, and accusative_case. Objects of the preposition occur only in the oblique cases.  

Part of Speech  The basic classification of a word according to its properties and use in a sentence: noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. The part of speech is the first clue to the grammatical function of a word, but a word may function quite differently from its part of speech.  

Participial Phrase  A participle with its complements and modifiers. As a verbal form, the participle can govern nouns as subjects, indirect_objects, or direct objects, adverbs, prepositional_phrases, and other complements. In Greek the participial phrase is often best translated as a subordinate_clause.  


While reading the Isaiah scroll to the people, he gazed at the congregation.

After having Jesus scourged, he delivered him to be crucified.

Participle  A verbal adjective that is typically distinguished in English by its “ing” or “ed” ending. The present participle (“ing”) functions as a verbal modifier of nouns and pronouns. The past participle (“ed”) likewise modifies nouns and pronouns, but also implies past time. Both can be used with auxiliary_verbs to form compound tenses in the English verbal system and both can introduce a participial_phrase. In Greek the participle is far more prominent and its temporal significance more nuanced than in English, but its function is quite similar.  


Having prepared, the apostles set out on the journey.

And coming to his hometown, he began teaching them.

Particle  A word (often a short word or part of a word) that expresses some general aspect of meaning, shows some connective or limiting relation, or functions as a grammatical marker. This is not a part_of_speech, but a general category for words whose part of speech is ambiguous or whose function fluctuates between parts of speech. Typically included are sentence adverbs, conjunctions, interjections, and improper or adverbial prepositions.  


Who are you, O man?

And now, O Father, glorify me.

Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world.

Ha! What do you want with us?

Person  A property of a verb or pronoun that indicates the speaker (first person: I, we), the addressee (second person: you), or other individual or things spoken about (third person: he, she, it, they). In Greek the personal_ending specifies person in verbs, while the lexical root specifies person in pronouns.  


I believe (1st).

You believe (2nd).

She believes (3rd).

Personal Ending  The verbal suffix that specifies person and number. Inflected forms of finite verbs will have the particular personal ending that agrees with its subject. In Greek there are four sets of personal endings.  


baptivzw (“I baptize,” 1st person singular).

Personal Pronoun  A pronoun that refers most typically to a person, but can in the third person refer to a thing. This pronoun is inflected in such a way as to indicate three possible persons: the one speaking (first person: “I/we”), the one spoken to (second person: “you”), and the one spoken about (third person: “he, she, it, they”).

As a pronoun, these forms stand alone and have the same functions as nouns. However, the third person pronoun can also function as an adjective (intensive adjective, identical adjective).  


Both he and I have followed the Lord.

Mary saw him on the cross.

It was the sixth hour.

Phrase  A group of words that function together grammatically but do not form a subject and predicate. The most common kind of phrase is a prepositional_phrase.  


…into the Pharisee’s house…

…on the Sabbath day…

…returning to the house…

…at the same time…

Possessive Pronoun  A pronoun that is used as a modifier to denote possession. Typically these would be possessive forms of the personal_pronouns (“my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, our, ours, their, theirs”) used adjectivally (“her book,” “our house”).  


He cried out, “My Lord and my God.”

Lift up your eyes and look at the fields.

He has blinded their eyes and hardened their hearts.

All mine are yours and yours are mine.

Predicate  The word predicate is used here as a noun denoting the grammatical elements in a clause that assert something about the subject. The predicate contains at least a verb, but includes all modifiers and complements of the verb as well.

The word predicate can also be used as an adjectival modifier ( predicate_adjective, predicate_nominative) or as a verb meaning, “to say something about.”  


They will believe.

Peter saw the other disciple entering the tomb.

Jesus is the Messiah.

Predicate Adjective  An adjective that occurs in the predicate and modifies or explains the subject. Like the predicate_nominative (a noun!), the predicate_adjective (an adjective!) occurs with equative verbs and takes the same case as the subject. In Greek the predicate adjective never has an article immediately preceding.  


The disciple is wise.

Predicate Noun or Predicate Nominative  A noun that occurs in the predicate and is equated to the subject. The predicate noun will always have the same case as the subject (hence the alternative designation as “predicate nominative”) and will usually follow some form of the verb “to be,” or a verb of calling or naming. These equative verbs, also known as linking verbs, may be explicit or implied.  


He is a disciple.

Prefix  One or more letters or syllables attached to the front of a word that alters its meaning.  


dress => undress

Preposition  A phrase comprising a preposition, the object of a preposition, and any intervening modifiers (articles, adjectives, adverbs). The phrase will contain no finite verbs and generally functions like an adjective or adverb.  


They rested under the tree on the road to Damascus.

He was in the world and the world was made by him.

…you might have life through his name.

Prepositional Phrase  A phrase comprising a preposition, the object_of_a_preposition, and any intervening modifiers (articles, adjectives, adverbs). The phrase will contain no finite verbs and generally functions like an adjective or adverb.  


He went into the great Temple.

He was in the world and the world was made by him.

…you might have life through his name.

Pronoun  A word that takes the place of a noun, usually to avoid awkward repetition. Pronouns typically function just as nouns do. There are nine classifications of pronouns: demonstrative_pronoun, indefinite_pronoun, intensive_pronoun, interrogative_pronoun, personal_pronoun, possessive_pronoun, reciprocal_pronoun, reflexive_pronoun, relative_pronoun.

Pronouns stand alone and are typically unmodified. However, some pronouns can also function as adjectives (demonstrative pronoun, third person personal pronoun, indefinite pronoun).  


He saw Jesus (personal).

The leper was washing himself (reflexive).

Whom do you serve? (interrogative)

Reciprocal Pronoun  A pronoun that expresses a mutual relationship or action between the persons indicated by the subject (“each other, one another”).  


Brothers, love one another.

Therefore, receive one another as Christ received us.

You are able also to admonish one another.

Reflexive Pronoun  A pronoun that functions as the object of a verb and refers back to the subject of that same verb. In other words, the antecedent of a reflexive pronoun will always be the subject, and the reflexive pronoun always an object, of the same verb. The reflexive pronoun will look the same as the intensive_pronoun (“myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves”), but the functions will differ.  


She went down to the river to wash herself.

None of us lives for himself.

They are a law unto themselves.

Relative Pronoun  A pronoun introducing a subordinate_clause that modifies an antecedent noun or pronoun. The relative pronoun takes the place of the antecedent in the subordinate clause and the whole clause modifies the antecedent. The relative pronouns are “who, whose, whom, which, what, and that” and the subordinate clause they introduce is called a relative clause.  


The man whom I saw was Peter.

The city that he left was Bethsaida.

For God whom I serve is my witness.

Sentence  A grammatical structure that consists of at least one main_clause and expresses a complete thought. Sentences are generally classified according to their structure as simple_sentence, compound_sentence, complex_sentence, or compound-complex_sentence.  

Simple Sentence  A sentence containing just one main_clause.  


He saw the Lord.

The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord.

Subject  The grammatical element in a clause (typically a substantive) denoting the specific person, place, or thing about which the predicate is asserted. The subject performs the action of an active verb, receives the action of a passive verb, or exists in the state expressed by an equative verb. Individual modifiers, phrases, or clauses may expand the subject. Some grammarians include all the modifiers as the subject, but functionally the subject is the word itself without any of its modifiers.  


Pontius Pilate addressed the crowd (active voice).

The crowd was addressed by Pilate (passive voice).

Subordinating Conjunction  A conjunction that connects a subordinate clause (except a relative clause) to a main_clause. A relative clause is subordinate, but it is connected by a relative pronoun, not a subordinating conjunction.  


I have come so that you may believe.

He departed in order to preach elsewhere.

Substantive  A noun or any word or group of words that functions as a noun. This is a general designation that can include nouns, pronouns, adjectives, participles, infinitives, phrases, and even whole clauses.  

Suffix  One or more letters or syllables attached to the end of a word that alters its meaning.  


dress => dressed

Syntax  That part of grammar dealing with the structure of language: the proper arrangement of words to form phrases and clauses, and to show their grammatical relationships and functions.  

Tense  A property of the verb that in English indicates the time when the action or state of being occurs. In Greek, however, tense indicates not only time (when the action occurs) but also aspect (kind of action). Greek has six tenses: present, imperfect, future, aorist, perfect, and pluperfect. Tense is discerned from the pattern of several inflectional elements: verbal stem, prefixes (reduplication, augment), and suffixes (tense sign/formative, personal ending).  

Transitive Verb  A verb that takes a direct object. The action of the verb originates with the subject and transfers to the direct_object. The direct object receives the action of a transitive verb.  


He read the scroll.

Verb  A word that expresses an action or a state of being with respect to the subject. The verb is essential in forming clauses and represents the only indispensable element in the predicate. Some verbs require more than one word to express tense, voice, or mood.  

Vocative Case  The case used for the grammatical function of direct address. Most of the vocative case_endings are identical to nominative_case endings, but this is different from the nominative case.  


“O Son of David!”

Ouj pa:V oJ levgwn moi` kuvrie kuvrie (“Not everyone who says to me, ‘Lord, Lord’…”)

Voice  A property of the verb that indicates its relationship to the subject. If the subject is doing the action, the voice is active. If the subject is receiving the action (being acted upon), the voice is passive. In Greek there is a third option. If the subject does the action but is also the recipient/beneficiary of the action, the voice is middle. The voice is discerned from two inflectional elements: verbal stem and personal_endings.  


He spoke the word (active).

The word was spoken (passive).

He spoke the word on his own behalf/ for himself (middle; but note that this subtlety of Greek can be extremely difficult to render in smooth English).


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